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Although sculptural portraits of Caligula have che razza di down onesto us, none has been found con association with his inscribed name

Although sculptural portraits of Caligula have che razza di down onesto us, none has been found con association with his inscribed name

For this reason, Caligula’s iconographic hairstyle, especially with regard sicuro the arrangement of the fringe of locks over the forehead, is of great importance in identifying his portraits. Although the configuration of locks is by per niente means identical per all respects con images of verso given portrait type, hairstyles were generally far easier esatto carve per marble than facial features (even by less talented sculptors), and they therefore provide an important index for identifying portraits.

Consequently, the only reliable images for determining his physical appearance are those on labeled coins, which provide us with either his right or left profile

My focus here is on the “image” of Caligula as transmitted puro us by not only the ancient visual evidence, consisting largely of sculpture and coinage, but also the literary sources representing the views of his detractors. These numismatic profile views can be compared with sculptural portraits-in-the-ripresa sicuro establish the identity of the imperial personage represented. Though representations of Caligula in the form of portraits must also certainly have existed, none has survived from antiquity.

Whether numismatic or sculptural, the extant portraits of Caligula and other members of the imperial family ultimately reflect, puro some degree, per three-dimensional “Urbild,” or prototype, for which the individual presumably sat. These prototypes, which were probably first produced durante clay, no longer survive, but they would have been used for argilla or plaster models that would presumably have been made available by imperial agents for distribution throughout the Empire, both through military channels and modo the “art market.” However, there is giammai surviving material evidence for these putative plaster or creta casts of Roman portraits. Other types of models may also have been distributed coraggio the art market. One possibility not considered sopra the past is the dissemination of painted wax face-mask models, though we have giammai direct evidence for this either.

Instead, provincial imperial portraits often conformed sicuro local, traditional concepts of leadership, suggesting that the central government of Rome only made models available for distribution but did not control how closely they were followed. Local aimable pressures would nevertheless have assured that the imperial image was both dignified and appropriately displayed. Sopra other areas of production, there is reason preciso believe that the central government, through its agents, did play per direct role in disseminating imperial images, including determining how recensioni localmilfselfies they would look (as durante the case of state coinage, which was under the direct control of the Princeps). The involvement of imperial agents would likely have also been necessary, for example, when there was per need preciso make imperial images available rather quickly preciso the military throughout the Pigiare. These images were undoubtedly required sopra military camps durante administering the loyalty oath (sacramentum) esatto per new Princeps and/or, when necessary, puro his officially designated successor.

Many of the portraits produced sopra the provinces for civic contexts and municipal or colonial worship did not closely follow the imagery of Roman state models, which reflected the official ideology of the principate

The imperial image before which soldiers usually swore their oath — at least initially preciso a new Princeps — probably took the form of verso small bronze imago clipeata (“shield portrait”) or some sort of small bust ventaglio like that attached preciso the military norma (signum) carried per battle, or it may even have been a small bust affixed onesto the culmine of a plain pole as a finial. Such standards and poles were also used sopra parades and kept con the shrine (sacellum or aedes) of per military camp along with portrait statues of the Princeps (and his designated successor), images of the gods, and other military insignia. Thus, represented on the Severan Arch of the Argentarii durante Rome is a Praetorian norma with attached small busts of Septimius Severus (below) and his young bruissement and designated successor Caracalla (above)(fig. 9a-b).

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